The single most used material today in the Industry is Metal. The reason for the increased use of the metals is due to its wide range of properties:
- Low specific heat
- Plastic deformability
- Good thermal conductivity
- Relatively high melting point
- Dimensional stability
Metals are found in nature in the form of ores. The science of metallurgy includes deriving the metals from its ores, its purification, alloying with other metals and finally manufacture into shape and forms usable in industries.
Definition: Metallurgy is a science and technology of:
- Extracting metals from their ores.
- Refining of crude metals.
- Production of alloys to alter constituents and improve properties.
- Studyingthe relationship of physical, thermal and mechanical treatment of metals and alloys.
Classification of Metallurgy: The study of metallurgy is classified in two major groups,
- Chemical Metallurgy
- Physical Metallurgy
Chemical Metallurgy: Chemical metallurgy deals with,
- The extraction of metals from the ores in which they are found.
- The process of mining, extraction and refining of metals and alloys that can be used in industries.
Physical Metallurgy: Physical metallurgy deals with
- The nature, structure and physical properties of metals and alloys, as well as their applications and behavior.
- The physical behavior of the metals during shaping and treating operations.