There are four types of broaching machine:
- Horizontal broaching machine
- Vertical Broaching machine
- Surface broaching machine
- Continuous broaching machine
Horizontal Broaching Machine
All horizontal machines are of pull type. These may be used for either internal or external broaching. The horizontal broaching machine consists of a bed more than twice the length of broaching stroke. The broach pilot gives drive for pulling the broach.
Horizontal broaching machines are primarily used for broaching key ways, splines, slots, round holes and other internal shapes or contours. These machines have the disadvantage of taking more floor space than the vertical machine. However, long broaches and heavy work pieces are easily handled.
The vertical broaching machines are available in either pull or push type. The push type is the most common. A vertical broaching machine is employed in multiple operations, and these are more likely to be found doing surface operations. There are three models available, pull up, pull down and push down. Pull up type is most popular. Vertical machines require an operator platform or a pit. It requires less floor space than the horizontal type.
Modern vertical broaches are provided with both hydraulic and electro-mechanical drives, but hydraulic drives are the most common because these cost less.
Surface Broaching Machine
Surface broaching machines have their broaching tools attached to a ram or rams forced in straight path along guide ways. On some machines the ram moves horizontally, on other vertically. When two rams are used, the machine is called a duplex broaching machining.
Continuous Broaching Machine
It is used for mass production of small components. The highly productive continuous-broaching method is used on rotary or horizontal continuous-broaching machines.
- Rotary Continuous Broaching Machine – The work piece is loaded on the table which rotates continuously. During the operation the broach is stationary.
- Horizontal Continuous Broaching Machine – The work pieces travel as they are carried by an endless chain. The work pieces are loaded into work holding fixtures mounted on the continuously moving chain. During the operation, the broach is stationery as before. Such machines are used for broaching small parts.