Aluminium and its Alloys

The non-ferrous metals are those which contain a metal other than iron as their chief constituent. The non-ferrous metals are usually employed in industry due to the following characteristics: Easy to fabricate i.e., casting, rolling, forging, welding and machining, High resistance to corrosion, Very good...
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Copper and Its Alloys

Copper is one of the most widely used non-ferrous metals in industry. It is not found in pure state from under the earth. It occurs in some minerals such as copper glance (Cu2S), copper pyrites (CuFeS2)’ malachite (CuCO3.CuO2H2) and azurite (3CuCO3.CuO2). Properties and Uses It...
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Zinc Metal and its Alloys

The chief ores of Zinc are zinc blende (zinc sulphide) and calamine (zinc carbonate). In the extraction of the metal, the ore is first roasted in a reverberatory furnace to convert the sulphide to oxide, and in the case of calamine, to drive off carbonic...
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Nickel and its Alloys

Nickel is obtained commercially from oxide ores, arsenical ores, and ores of Copper, Manganese and Iron, at least 85 percent of all nickel production is obtained from Sulphide ores. Pure nickel is tough silver-coloured metal, rather harder than Copper and have about the same strength,...
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Titanium & Zirconium Alloys

Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Sometimes called the “space age metal”, it has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including sea water and chlorine) with a silver color. Titanium can be alloyed with Iron,...
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Introduction to Heat Treatment

Heat treatment is an operation or combination of operations, involving heating and cooling of a metal or alloy in the solid state for the purpose of changing the properties of the metal. Heat treatment consists of three phases. (a) Heating of the metal. (b) Soaking...
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Furnaces Used for Heat Treatment

Heat treatment furnace may be defined as a refractory-lined chamber in which the metal part to be heat-treated, is heated to the required temperature. Usually a heat-treatment furnace is a box-like structure i.e., a steel shell with an access door, a refractory lining, temperature controls and...
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Types of Heat Treatment

Heat treatment is defined as an operation or combination of operations, involving heating and cooling of a metal or alloy in the solid state to obtain desirable properties. Heat treatment consists of three phases. (a)        Heating of the metal (b)       Soaking of the heat...
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